According to the official site of Wayback Machine; ”They’re trying to change history — don’t let them. The Wayback Machine is a crucial resource in the fight against disinformation, and now more than ever we need your help. Right now we’re preserving history as it unfolds, keeping track of who’s saying what and when — without access charges, selling user data, or running ads.”
Instead, the Internet Archive (which runs this project) relies on the generosity of individuals to help them keep the record straight. Their message continues; “We don’t ask often, but right now, we have a 2-to-1 Matching Gift Campaign, tripling the impact of every donation. If you find all these bits and bytes useful, please pitch in.” So, you can donate if you’ve got a big heart.
The Internet Archive’s site, the “Wayback Machine”, has a very easy-to-use interface to search for website information. The site provides the date and times of when the site has been crawled. As well as a capture of the site, so that the user can see how the site has changed over time. These archived web pages provide web investigators with useful information.
What Is Wayback Machine?
Wayback Machine (Internet Archive) is a non-profit database library of millions of free books, movies, software, music, websites, and more. The achieved web pages may also provide a cybercrime investigator with useful information. Including ownership information in the archived “About Us” section that may have been deleted or later changed.
More so, in order to prevent the current webpage from disclosing website ownership. Just like any other webpage, the investigator can also look through the HTML source code of the achieved page to look for possible usable information. Forthwith, the data stored through the Wayback Machine project has a mirrored site in Alexandria, Egypt.
Bibliotheca Alexandrina maintains the only copy and external backup of the Internet Archive. The Internet Archive at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina includes web collections from 1996 through 2007. It represents about 1.5 petabytes of data stored on 880 computers. The entire collection is available for free access to researchers, historians, scholars, and the general public.
In reality, the Bibliotheca Alexandrina Internet Archive is the first center of its kind established outside US borders. It’s design not only serves as a backup for the mother archive in San Francisco but also as a hub for Africa and the Middle East. Technically, Wayback Machine has stored more than 347 billion web captures since 2001 (when it first went live).
How Wayback Machine Showcase Webpages Data Archives
Just for fun, we thought we’d go back and check out our own website — josephmuciraexclusives.com — using our domain as the demo. And just by typing our site URL in the Internet Archive search box, we are quite amazed. For one thing, we are able to see (as indicated by the blue highlighted dates) that our website has been archived several times a year, since 2001.
With that in mind, we can now look at web results — together — from the Wayback Machine user-based sample scenario. More so, after testing our domain as per the illustrations below. It’s clear to note that there are almost six tabs to use.
#1: Webpages Calendar Data Archives Overview
#2: Website Collections Data Archives Overview
#3: Website Changes Data Archives Overview
“Changes” is where everything holds its horses. It’s a tool you can use to identify and display, changes in the content of archives of URLs. First, you can select two different archives for a URL, based on an interface that shows the degree of relative change from one archive to another. And then, you can see the replay of the two URLs you select, side-by-side. In that case, with changes highlighted in Blue and Yellow.
#4: Website Summary Data Archives Overview
As for this option, you’ll get an overall summary of MIME-types Count with the last 10 captures at the bottom. Including texts, images, locations, font, etc. You also get the Keys Summary for the TLD/Host/Domain as well as Top-Level MIME-types Summary. According to ours, it has been saved 71 times between November 5, 2017, and December 10, 2021, as shown below.
#5: Website Site Map Data Archives Overview
The “Site Map” feature groups all the archives the Wayback Machine has for websites by year. And then, it builds a visual site map, in the form of a radial-tree graph, for each year. Notably, the center circle is the “root” of the website. While the successive rings moving outside from the center present pages from the site.
As you roll over the rings and cells, you’ll notice that the corresponding URLs change at the top. And that you can click on any of the individual pages to go directly to an archive of that URL. Your Site Map data archive will look like this:
#6: Website URLs Data Archives Overview
Last but not least, the final option to have a look at is the URLs data archives. And as for our web domain, the Internet Archives Database indicates that there are 6,640 URLs have been captured for this URL prefix. The list is quite long and we are not able to share a screenshot for the same at the moment. With that in mind, the best thing is for you to test your site even if it’s now.
In order to see it’s webpages data archive. Just visit its official site: archive.org to begin. At the same time, it has something for you too who has no website. Whereby, since the Internet Archive is a non-profit database library, it has a collection of millions of free books, movies, software, music, websites, and more.
All you’ll need to do is visit its official site to See The Top Collections At The Archive and so much more interesting and relevant content. If you’ll miss something, try more additional links below this blog article.
Investigators should be aware that the site does not crawl and record everything found on a website or webpage. It does not record every page if the Robot.txt file is set to tell search engines not to crawl the page. Additionally, certain Java code and other newer active content scripting are not collected.
Launched in 1996, the Internet Archives web archive contains over 2 petabytes of data compressed, or 150+ billion web captures. Including content from every top-level domain, 200+ million websites, and over 40 languages. In general, they serve their web visitors all forms of content. Including images, videos, audio, books, software, and much more web archives too.
To Date, Their Archive Contains:
- 588 billion web pages
- 28 million books and texts
- 14 million audio recordings (including 220,000 live concerts)
- 6 million videos (including 2 million Television News programs)
- 3.5 million images
- 580,000 software programs
A single copy of the Internet Archive library collection occupies 70+ Petabytes of server space (and they store at least 2 copies of everything). Talking of investment, they’re funded through donations, grants, and by providing web archiving solutions.
As well as book digitization services for their partners. As with most libraries, they always value the privacy of patrons (their web platform users). In that case, they try to avoid keeping the IP (Internet Protocol) addresses of their readers and offer their site in https (secure) protocol.
The Key Internet Archive Projects Summary
One of the foremost Internet Archive projects is the Open Content Alliance (OCA). A collaborative effort of a group of cultural, technology, nonprofit, and governmental organizations from around the world. It helps build a permanent archive of multilingual digitized text and multimedia material. An archive of contributed material is available on its site and Yahoo!
You’ll also find it through other well-known search engines and sites too. They also have an Open Education Resources library project too. It contains hundreds of free courses, video lectures, and supplemental materials from universities in the United States and China. Additionally, they also involve themselves with a project by the name 301Works.org.
To enumerate, 301Works.org is an independent service for archiving URL mappings. The goal of the service is to provide protection for everyday users of short URL services. In particular, by providing transparency and permanence of their mappings. That said, below are more Internet Archive Projects to consider as powered by the Wayback Machine.
- Open Library
- Political TV Ad Archive
- Building Libraries Together
- Scanning Services
- Software Archive
- Offline Archive
In addition to the list above, it’s also worth mentioning its Open Community Networks as well. Specifically, the Internet Archive’s Community Networking project provides free, high-speed wired, and wireless Internet to residents of San Francisco. The project has evolved greatly since its inception in 1997.
Currently, it also works with the City and County of San Francisco. Especially, in order to provide free, high-speed internet to low-income San Francisco residents. Fortunately, they are interested in providing the same to other communities too. So, if you are interested, you can mail your request to [email protected].
Having said that, in nutshell, the Internet Actives FAQ page lists circumstances when the site does not collect information on a particular website or page. Regardless of some limitations, this is still a hugely valuable tool. More so, for useful persons such as cybercrime investigators to identify any useful/relevant past website data. Then, build a case out of the evidence.
Judges Ruling: Wayback Machine Is A Legit Legal Evidence!
Sometime back, US-based appeals court judges’ rule was that Archive.org’s Wayback Machine is legit legal evidence. Meaning, that the Wayback Machine (Archive Webpages) is a legitimate source of web-based evidence that may be used in litigation, as ruled by US appeals court judges. The second circuit ruling supports a similar one from the third circuit taken together.
Meaning, that the decisions could pave the way for the Internet Archive’s library of web pages to be considered evidence for countless future trials. The second circuit, based in New York, was asked over the summer to review an appeal by an Italian computer hacker. Notwithstanding, he sought to exclude site screenshots he run tying him to a virus/botnet.
Related Topic: Why Cyber Security Awareness Is Important | Useful Tools
Furthermore, this is something he was ultimately convicted of. Prosecutors had taken screenshots of his webpages from the Internet Archive and used them as trial evidence – and he wanted the files thrown out. Fabio Gasperini argued that the presented Wayback Machine archives of his web pages were not adequately authenticated as legit and untampered.
And so, they shouldn’t have been included in his criminal trial. He cited a decision by the second circuit to argue his point, noting that in a 2009 case, the appeals court had agreed with a lower district court’s decision to exclude screenshots of Wayback Machine snapshots. On a basis that their authenticity could not be proven. Just read the whole judgment in full.
The Internet Archive Webpages Data Authentication
Notably, if investigators are determined to obtain an affidavit and authenticate printouts, they provide procedures for doing so on their website (http://archive.org/legal/). Fees are $250 per request plus $20 for each extended URL.
Except those which contain downloadable/printable files. Such URLs (e.g., .pdf, .doc, or .txt) cost instead $30 per extended URL. Copies are not automatically notarized. If the investigator wants the affidavit notarized, there is an additional $100 fee. The Internet Archive is a nonprofit organization and as such is not in the business of responding to requests for affidavits.
Or otherwise, authenticating web pages and other related data information from their Wayback Machine. Accordingly, they ask, prior to requesting authentication and an affidavit on the results, investigators to inquire about a few things.
Consider the following:
- Seek judicial notice or simply ask your opposing party to stipulate the document’s authenticity
- Get the person who posted the information on the URLs to confirm it is authenticating
- Reach the person who actually accessed the historical URL versions
The reason for this is to confirm that they collected and it is an accurate copy of what was accessed. Overall, this’s what even the science-direct text has been stressing all through. Namely, proper collection, preservation, and documentation of the process are a must in authenticating online evidence.
What Are The Key Benefits Of Using The Wayback Machine?
While searching Web pages for the information needed in an attack, it is important to realize the impact that time has on a Web page. The page that you see today may not be the same that was shown yesterday or last year. Information changes on a constant basis and some sites simply start reducing the information they share on their sites for fear of an attack.
However, this reduction doesn’t help them against Web archive services, such as Google and the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine, located at www.archive.org/web/web.php. The Google Cache service stores Google’s latest copy of a Web site on their servers and is incredibly useful in instances when a Web site goes down for maintenance.
It can also be used by online searchers to pull up information that may have just been removed or modified on a Web site before Google has the opportunity to reindex the Web site and change its cached version. To view a cached version of a Web site, you can simply search for the page in question and click the Cached link directly below the result.
By clicking this link, you will be shown the Web page, but it’ll be served directly from Google’s servers instead of the actual Web site’s server. If that statement made you tingle inside, you probably saw a great reconnaissance opportunity here. Below are other more relevant Wayback Machine benefits for you to consider. Let’s take a look, shall we?
#1: Accessing Unlimited Information
One of the topmost Wayback Machine benefits is that; anyone with a free account can upload media to the Internet Archive. Usually, they work with thousands of partners globally to save copies of their work into special collections. And being a library, they pay special attention to books. Not everyone has access to a public/academic library with a good collection.
So, to provide universal access there’s a need to provide digital versions of books. They began a program to digitize books back in 2005. Today, they scan 3,500 books per day in 18 locations around the world. Books published prior to 1926 are available for download, and hundreds of thousands of modern books can be borrowed through their Open Library site.
Unfortunately, some of their free digitized books are only available to people with print disabilities. In the same fashion, just like the Internet, television is also an ephemeral medium. That’s why they began archiving television programs in late 2000. And their first public TV project was an archive of TV news surrounding the events of September 11, 2001.
In 2009 they began to make selected U.S. television news broadcasts searchable by captions in their TV News Archive. This service allows researchers and the public to use television as a citable and sharable reference. Overall, the Internet Archive serves millions of people each day and is one of the top 300 websites in the world.
#2: Keeping Hackers At Bay
By connecting directly to a company’s Web site, you are giving up tell-tale signs of your approach. There is an ongoing Weblog maintained by the company’s Web server on every single page reviewed and the Internet Protocol (IP) address of the machine that requested it. Most attackers will find ways to obscure their source IP by browsing the Web through relaying proxies.
But, we could also the Google Cache service for this. By focusing our search queries on Google Cache, we can mine a ton of information from the target without ever accessing the target’s server. However, this isn’t completely foolproof. Google only caches the actual text content of the page, not images or multimedia; those are still directly hosted from the target’s server.
And even viewing the Google Cache will relay back your presence to the target as you attempt to download graphics and videos. When you view the Google Cache version of a page, you will notice a large banner at the top of the page. At the bottom-right corner of this banner is a link that will take you to a text-only version of the page.
By clicking this link, you will see only the text itself of the page, directly from Google’s servers. It is not completely segregated for some sites. But, chances are that on a majority of Web sites, you can passively view the page details without ever accessing the target’s servers.
#3: Stripping Server Host Content
This action can also be taken manually without clicking through the various Google links. You can directly pull up the Google Cache version of a Web site by Google searching with the cache: operator. For example, search for cache:3DNF.net and you’ll be taken directly to the cached version. What if you then want to strip out the images and leave just the text?
Well, all you’ll need to do is click on the Web browser’s address bar and add the following argument to the end of the URL text: &strip=1. This text will tell Google to reshow the page but strip out all images and multimedia. Performing these actions manually causes you to access the real Web page’s server during the first cache request.
Whilst, obtaining the search query to modify, thus defeating the point of stripping the content hosted on the real Web page’s server during the second, stripped request. However, these actions can also be performed automatically through a variety of Web browser add-ons. Such as the Passive Cache add-on for Mozilla Firefox, which allows you to right-click on a URL.
And then, it immediately brings up the stripped cache version of it. While it results in never having actually accessed the real Web site’s server. Passive Cache can be found at https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/977.
#4: Viewing More Archaic Details
It is also possible to view more archaic details of a site through its entry in the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine, a site with more than 150 billion pages archived based on their address and date. With it, you can view Apple’s Web site from 1996, years before they gained their international popularity. You can probably guess the power of this search engine.
In their early days, many businesses will post incredibly detailed information on their Web pages, trying to coax more business to their stores. Over time, the need for operational security outweighs their need to bring in new, casual business, so details start to drop off their Web pages. Using Archive.org’s Wayback Machine, you can also find even more details.
For instance, based on pages that have been seemingly removed from the Internet. One notable example was a United States Postal Service (USPS) data leak in 2004. In fact, in which a USPS Supervisor installed Kazaa on his work computer and inadvertently shared out the entire hard drive. Unfortunately, this information was collected by a random P2P user.
Whereby, they downloaded hundreds of pages of disciplinary write-ups full of personal information. This information was then posted to a public forum and viewed by all. Over time, the Web site went down and the forum was pulled. This site is no longer retrievable and does not exist anywhere — except in the Wayback Machine.
In other words, by placing the URL into Wayback, we can view a cached version of the entire forum posting and read all of the details. This functionality is also automated by the Passive Cache add-on for Mozilla Firefox.
#5: Preventing Cybercrime Exorcists
Compare this; movies and TV shows tend to show a person sitting at a computer and miraculously penetrating a network with a few keystrokes. However, hacking often involves research, skill sets, the right tools, and time. This isn’t to say that there aren’t times when an opportunity presents itself. At most, a computer with no security might be on an open Wi-Fi network.
Eventually, if wrong permissions are applied to a folder, everyone can access the computer freely. Similarly, mistakes in a seemingly secure site allow entrance to areas that are in reserve for members. While such things happen, most times you’ll need to discover what’s available. Or what’s vulnerable, and find the best way to get in/out without detection.
Reconnaissance is the first step a hacker will take, where they try to gather as much information as possible about a target. Often, a hacker will begin with passive reconnaissance, which doesn’t involve direct interaction. Not to mention, it’s harder to detect and doesn’t involve using tools that touch the target’s site, network, or computers.
Some of the ways you might do passive reconnaissance include:
Search Engines: Though trustworthy, they may reveal documents with the names of a Virtual Private Network (VPN) the company uses. Or rather, vendor documentation mentions that the target is a client using certain products (routers, software, etc.). In doing this, you may get information on the company’s remote access, and see cache pages that allow you to stay passive.
Job Advertisements: Though not common, some of them can reveal the contact information of an unsuspecting user. Therefore, it’s a requirement to know certain software or equipment that may have vulnerabilities that can be exploited, and so on. Particularly, LinkedIn and other sites where employees have identified their involvement with a target.
Web Portals: For instance, you can consider Whois.com in this case. In addition to similar sites that provide the names of web server clients. Always remember, it’s safe not to disclose your IP address ranges, the names of web administrators, email addresses, and so on unless need be. Some hackers can use the same info to get back to you and even harm you.
Wayback Machine: Obviously, the reason to mention it (www.archive.org) is because of easy access to web data. More so, in order to see past versions of a website. Whilst, allowing you to review the target’s site, see contact information for employees, etc. Or even content that may have been deemed a security risk and removed from the current site.
Once you’ve learned what you can do without touching a site or network, a hacker will move on to active reconnaissance. Whereby, it involves interaction with a target and could be traceable. For example, a hacker may call or talk to employees, visit their website, or do other actions in which they touch the network as a normal user.
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And then, after gathering everything you can on a company, its infrastructure, personnel, and other details that can help you gain access. By then, you should have a good idea of the company’s structure and network, and be ready to move onward.
Consider the following:
Network Scanning: This is where you try and identify what hosts are live and their purpose on a network. The hacker might use the PING command to see what servers are running. Or otherwise, use port scanning software to find weaknesses like open ports or ways to bypass firewalls. In doing so, he or she may throttle the scan. So that its slow pings and scans hide in the normal network traffic, and aren’t easily detectable.
Service Enumeration: This is where you identify the services running on a server, and determine any vulnerabilities they might have.
Assess Vulnerabilities: This is where you identify vulnerabilities in an app, site, or network. While using a vulnerability database, knowledge bases, and other vulnerability scanner toolkits as well. Like OpenVAS (www.openvas.org) to scan a system and provide a report.
Exploit Vulnerability: This is where you either find an existing exploit or develop a new one that can take advantage of vulnerabilities you’ve discovered.
At this point, the hacker is finally at a stage where he or she can use the gathered information to attempt breaking into a system or site. The method used will depend on the skill level of the hacker, and what’s easiest and makes the most sense to achieve their goals. For example, let’s say they can get a username and password for an FTP site from a list or through social engineering.
Well, in that case, they might log on as an authentic user, and then modify or upload web pages so the content is different. If they’ve accessed an administrator account, they have full control of the server or system. If not, they may try to exploit vulnerabilities they’ve found to elevate their privileges to this level.
#6: Monitoring Clickjacking Behaviours
A variation on clickjacking vs ‘likejacking,’ is where you’ll see a post or status update on Facebook. It’s a common venue for clickjacking, where it often takes the form of likejacking. A post or status update may promise a video or even have intriguing or scandalous attention draw too. Such as saying “OMG This GUY Went A Little Too Far With His Revenge On His EX .”
When you click on it, you might be asked to like or share the post before you‘ve even seen it, presented with fake CAPTCHAs, or a link that asks you to take a test to prove you’re human. However, these aren’t actually challenging to prove you’re not a robot. Links and buttons on the page will run code to share or like a post. Whilst, distributing the spam to others viewing it.
These scam posts are often used to gather user information and may redirect you to other spam, phishing, or malicious websites. While hacking a site may seem covert, many hackers will gladly post this information on the Internet. Details of the hack, samples of data, or links to a complete dump of the database may appear on sites like Pastebin (www.pastebin.com).
Thus, allowing others to view and download the data. Other sources of finding hacked data include Internet Relay chat. As well as tweets about new dumps on Pastebin through Dump Monitor (@dumpmon), or Twitter Accounts belonging to a person or group responsible for the data breach. This shared data with other Cybercriminals may then be a good avenue for crimes.
#7: Controlling Doxing Practice
Doxing is another practice of sharing information acquired through hacking and other means. Dox is a homonym for docs (i.e., documents). Not forgetting, it involves uploading sensitive documents or a dossier of information onto the Internet. For example, in March 2013, the personal and financial information of numerous celebrities was posted on a site called Expose.
Some of the victims included FBI Director Robert Mueller, Kim Kardashian, Hillary Clinton, Mel Gibson, Ashton Kutcher, and others. Web pages on the site displayed such information as their full names, birthdates, etc. As well as their Social Security numbers, current and previous addresses, phone numbers, and copies of a credit report.
It was found that while some details on the site were false, other information was accurate. Such kind of data mine is obviously through a network of hackers (with some in groups). It may also be a result of inside jobs. Keeping in mind, not every attack originates from an outside source. Like private data becoming public, unauthorized access being given, etc.
All this can result in a malicious/careless user. The simple fact is that in any organization mistakes happen. A person may send confidential information to the wrong person or erroneously post classified information on a public site.
Staying Safe Outside Wayback Machine Internet Archives
Modern technology has made it more difficult to defend yourself against shoulder surfing. Oftentimes, as we take those evening strolls, we are always wary of unseen person figures behind us or even nearby our residence. At times, the thought of who may be watching what we’re doing on a keyboard or screen is quite heart-jerking. But, hackers are even scarier.
Simply, because we probably won’t notice someone watching us over a closed-circuit security camera. Or more so, if they are watching us at a distance with binoculars. Therefore, even though no one is in sight, don’t assume no one is watching. Another simple fact is that in any organization mistakes do happen. For example, a person may mess around with vital data.
As such, they may send confidential information to the wrong person or erroneously post classified information on a public site. Other types of accidental loss may involve situations where a computer, laptop, or other device or storage media is discarded or lost. Where insider threats are particularly dangerous is when a breach occurs because of a malicious user.
Other Key Sitemaps:
- Executive Staff Bios
- Volunteer Positions
- Job Opportunities
- Support Contacts
- Donation Campaign
- Some FAQ Answers
- General Information
- Availability API
While a lost USB drive may never be found and an exposed database may never be discovered, someone has a reason for stealing information. Even though no one has ever attacked a site or system, the results of an accidental or malicious data breach can be the same. It can damage confidence in an organization — resulting in a loss of business.
Bear in mind, that a breach equally threatens the confidentiality and privacy of customers. In the same fashion, another best method to get a person’s password is the low-tech one. Beware, it’s often easier to simply get a person to give you what you want. Shoulder surfing is one of them. Whereas, it involves looking over someone’s shoulder to see what they’re typing.
If you have a clear view, and a good memory, you can watch them type and then use what you’ve seen to gain access. On the contrary, if someone can see your PIN as you use an ATM or a debit/credit card payment machine, all they need is your card. For situations like entering a code for a rented locker, unlocking the screen on a phone or tablet, etc.
Sometimes, it’s even other forms of single-factor authentication. Or typing in a username and password — they only need the PIN or password. To avoid falling victim, ensure that any usernames/passwords are shielded as you type them. On the other hand, dumpster diving is another useful tact for hackers but very dangerous for businesses, worth trying.
Another useful tactic is dumpster diving, in which a person simply goes through your trash trying to get a hold of telling information. If it’s a business’ garbage, they may find printed maps of the network infrastructure, billing records, manuals, or employee names. This could be useful for social engineering, or (if someone threw out a sticky note with a password) hacking.
Equally important, if it’s your home garbage, they may find preapproved credit cards, a bill with account numbers, or other information to steal your identity. To avoid being a victim, you should shred any documents with sensitive or personal information, as well as ID, and financial cards.
Get It For:
Besides downloading Wayback Machine on your device gadgets, you can as well start to Build Collections of your own — for free! Just get in touch with their team — that’s if you’re interested in archiving and data services. You can also get its unique WordPress Broken Link Checker for your website as well as 404 Handler for Webmasters to get users on track.
In nutshell, the Internet Archive, a 501(c) (3) non-profit, is building a digital library of Internet sites and other cultural artifacts in digital form. Like a paper library, they provide free access to researchers, historians, scholars, the print disabled, and the general public. Ther mission is to provide Universal Access to All Knowledge.
Generally, they began their work back in 1996. And the first role was archiving the Internet itself — a medium that was just beginning to grow in use. Like newspapers, the content published on the web was ephemeral — but unlike newspapers, no one was saving it. Today they have 25+ years of web history accessible through the Wayback Machine.
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Finally, they also work with 750+ libraries and other partners through their Archive-It Program — to identify important web pages. And, as their web archive grew, so did their commitment to providing digital versions of other published works. That’s it! Everything you need to know about Wayback Machine (aka The Internet Archive).
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