First of all, the Orion li-ion Battery Management System has high immunity to harsh EMI (electrical noise) and voltage transients. Especially, found in automotive environments that plague other BMS systems.
Secondly, the Orion li-ion BMS is a full-featured lithium-ion battery management system that is specifically designed to meet the tough requirements. Particularly, of protecting and managing battery packs for;
- electric vehicles (EV),
- the plug-in hybrid (PHEV) and
- hybrid vehicles (HEV) with automotive grade quality.
In addition to automotive uses in electric and hybrid vehicles, the Orion BMS can also be used in stationary installations such as solar or wind storage batteries and UPS systems.
Basically, there are three main types of electric vehicles (EVs), classed by the degree that electricity is used as their energy source. BEVs, or battery electric vehicles, PHEVs of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and HEVs, or hybrid electric vehicles. Only BEVs are capable of charging on a level 3, DC fast charge.
What is a Battery Management System?
To simply put, Battery Management System is the brains behind battery packs. They manage the output, charging and discharging and provide notifications on the status of the battery pack. They also provide critical safeguards to protect the batteries from damage. Let’s take a look at a battery management system to familiarize ourselves with its components.
The single most important function that a battery management system performs is cell protection. Lithium-ion battery cells have two critical design issues; if you overcharge them you can damage them and cause overheating. And even explosion or flame so it’s important to have a battery management system to provide overvoltage protection.
In addition, Lithium-ion cells can also be damaged if they’re discharged below a certain threshold, approximately 5 percent of total capacity. If the cells are discharged below this threshold their capacity can become permanently reduced.
All in all, to ensure a battery’s charge doesn’t go above or below its limits, a battery management system has a safeguard device called a dedicated Lithium-ion protector. Every battery protection circuit has two electronic switches called “MOSFETs.” MOSFETs are semiconductors used to switch electronic signals on or off in a circuit.
What is a Discharge MOSFET and a Charge MOSFET?
A battery management system typically has a Discharge MOSFET and a Charge MOSFET. If the protector detects that the voltage across the cells exceeds a certain limit, it will discontinue the charge by opening the Charge MOSFET chip. Once the charge has gone back down to a safe level then the switch will close again.
Similarly, when a cell drains to a certain voltage, the protector will cut off the discharge by opening the Discharge MOSFET. The second most important function performed by a battery management system is energy management.
A good example of energy management is your laptop battery’s power meter. Most laptops today are not only able to tell you how much charge is left in the battery but also what your rate of consumption is and how much time you’ll have left to use the device before the battery needs to be recharged. So, in practical terms, energy management is very important in portable electronic devices.
What is the Key Battery Management System?
By definition, the key to energy management is “Coulomb Counting.” For example, if you have 5 people in a room and 2 people leave you’re left with three if three more people enter you now have 6 people in the room. If the room has a capacity of 10 people, with 6 people inside it’s 60% full. A battery management system tracks this capacity.
This state of charge is communicated to the user electronically through a digital bus called an SM BUS or through a state of charge display where you press a button and an LED display gives you an indication of the total charge in 20% increments.
Battery management systems for certain applications like the one for this hand-held point-of-sales terminal also include an embedded charger consisting of a control device. Not forgetting, an inductor (which is an energy storage device), and a discharger.
After all, the control device manages the charging algorithm. For lithium-ion cells, the ideal charging algorithm is constant current and constant voltage.
What does a Battery Pack contain?
A battery pack usually consists of several individual cells that work together in combination. If the cells go out of balance, individual cells can get stressed. Leading to premature charge termination and a reduction in the overall cycle life of the battery.
The cell balancers of the battery management system, extend the life of the battery by preventing this imbalance of charge in individual cells from occurring.
What are Battery Electric Vehicles?
To enumerate, Battery Electric Vehicles also called BEVs, and more frequently called EVs, are fully-electric vehicles with rechargeable batteries and no gasoline engine. Battery electric vehicles store electricity onboard with high-capacity battery packs.
Surprisingly, BEVs do not emit any harmful emissions and hazards caused by traditional gasoline-powered vehicles. Electric Vehicle (EV) chargers are classified according to the speed with which they recharge an EVs battery.
For your information, the classifications are Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 or DC fast charging. Level 1 EV charging uses a standard household (120v) outlet to plug into the electric vehicle and takes over 8 hours to charge an EV for approximately 75-80 miles. Level one charging is typically done at home or at the workplace.
Important to realize, level 1 chargers have the capability to charge most EVs on the market. While level 2 charging requires a specialized station that provides power at 240v. Then again, level 2 chargers are typically found at workplaces and public charging stations. And will take about 4 hours to charge a battery to 75-80 miles of range.
Level 3 charging, DC fast charging, or simply fast charging is currently the fastest charging solution in the EV market.
BEV Examples that can charge on DC Level 3 Fast Chargers
- Tesla Model 3
- BMW i3
- Chevy Bolt
- Chevy Spark
- Nissan LEAF
- Ford Focus Electric
- Hyundai Ioniq
- Karma Revera
- Kia Soul
- Mitsubishi i-MiEV
- Tesla Model S
- Tesla X
- Toyota Rav4
- Volkswagen e-Golf
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles or PHEVs can recharge the battery through both regenerative braking and “plugging in” to an external source of electrical power.
While “standard” hybrids can (at low speed) go about 1-2 miles before the gasoline engine turns on, PHEV models can go anywhere from 10-40 miles before their gas engines provide assistance.
- Chevy Volt
- Ford C-Max Energi
- Ford Fusion Energi
- Mercedes C350e
- Mercedes S550e
- Chrysler Pacifica
- Mercedes GLE550e
- BMW 330e
- Mini Cooper SE Countryman
- BMW i8
- Audi A3 E-Tron
- BMW X5 xdrive40e
- Fiat 500e
- Hyundai Sonata
- Kia Optima
- Porsche Cayenne S E-Hybrid
- Porsche Panamera S E-hybrid
- Toyota Prius
- Volvo XC90 T8
Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV)
On on hand, HEVs are powered by both gasoline and electricity. The electric energy is generated by the car’s own braking system to recharge the battery. This is called ‘regenerative braking’, a process where the electric motor helps to slow the vehicle and uses some of the energy normally converted to heat by the brakes.
On the other hand, HEVs start off using the electric motor, then the gasoline engine cuts in as load or speed rises.
- Toyota Prius Hybrid
- Honda Civic Hybrid
- Toyota Camry Hybrid
Eventually, it’s extremely simple to charge your electric vehicle at an EVgo station. There are 3 different ways you can charge your car easily.
For example, you can use our app, your RFID card, or a credit card. Learn everything you need to know about charging your Electric Vehicle. Including how to charge, charging time, charging cost and driving range on a single charge by visiting the EV Charging 101 page.
Functions of the Battery Management System
In general, the battery management system should achieve the following functions:
Accurate Estimation of SOC:
As an example, estimate accurately the State of Charge (SOC) of the power battery pack. That is, the remaining battery power.
In reality, ensuring that SOC is maintained within a reasonable range, prevent damage to the battery itself due to overcharging or over-discharge. Remarkably, displaying the power energy remaining in the hybrid electric vehicle battery at any time. Of course, referring to the charging state of the energy storage battery.
In the process of battery charging and discharging, the terminal voltage and temperature of each battery, charging and discharging current and total voltage of battery pack are collected in real-time to prevent overcharging or over-discharging.
At the same time, it also can show the status of batteries, select the batteries with problems, maintain the reliability and efficiency of the whole battery operation, and make the realization of the residual power estimation model possible.
Prevent Overcharging or Over-discharging
By the same token, the charging and discharging process of batteries usually utilizes current sensors. In particular, with higher accuracy and better stability for real-time detection. Generally, according to the different front-end currents of BMS, the corresponding sensor ranges are chosen to approach.
Balance Among Batteries:
Above all, balance technology is a key technology of the battery energy management system of all. FIC, as being a design manufacturer for over 40 years, has the profound capability to design and produce a battery management system for your project.
The Orion BMS Lithium-ion: Quick Specification
- Capable of measuring up to 180 battery cells per unit connected in series based on configuration.
- Configurations available in increments of 12 cells in series.
- The centralized design provides high EMI and noise immunity.
- Performs intelligent cell balancing (passive).
- Calculates state of charge (SOC).
- Uses professional automotive-grade locking connectors.
- Calculates discharge current limit (DCL) and charge current limit (CCL).
Additionally, can measure cell voltages between 0.5v and 5.0v. With dual (x2) CANBUS 2.0B interfaces which (fully programmable).
OBD2 diagnostic protocol support resources;
- See the full features list
- Original Orion BMS To Orion BMS 2 Migration Guide
- Full Product Specification Sheet (PDF)
The Orion Battery Management System: Major Improvements
- Significantly smaller enclosure size for 24-72 cell configurations.
- Roughly 40% lower weight on all models due to the new enclosure design and streamlined (removable) heatsink. Minimum heat dissipation requirements apply.
- Considerable boosts in measurement accuracy and processor speed allow for more advanced calculations and logic.
- Direct hardware support for several popular charging protocols including hardware support for SAE J1772 (directly interfacing with the pilot/proximity lines) and CHAdeMO for DC fast charging.
- Wider input power voltage range (now 12v-24vDC compatible) for better support on heavy vehicles and equipment. The Orion 2 BMS remains fully compatible with 12v applications.
- Ability to directly drive certain contactors on select inputs (bypassing the need for intermediate signal relays in some situations)–see supporting documentation for details.
- Completely redesigned multi-unit series configuration (now using Remote Cell Tap Expansion Modules). This greatly simplifies connecting multiple units together in series and improves the overall reliability.
- New Status LED on the unit to indicate power status and the presence of faults.
- Addition of 2x new Multi-Purpose Output pins with programmable functions.
- Significant algorithm and software enhancements to improve overall system accuracy for parameters such as the State of Charge and pack health.
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