Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist. And in reality, Albert Einstein developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics. Furthermore, his work is most known for its influence on the philosophy of science.
In addition, his mass and energy equivalence formula made him popular. And which is (E = mc2). And which has been dubbed “the world’s most famous equation“. In that case, if you’ll be less interested in moving ahead, please watch the full Documentary of the Extraordinary Genius Albert Einstein.
Notably, Einstein received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics “for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect.“Above all, a pivotal step in the development of quantum theory.
Albert Einstein tug of Gravity
Eventually, Sir Isaac Newton quantified the gravity between two objects. When he formulated his three laws of motion. The force tugging between two bodies depends on how massive each one is. And also, how far apart the two lie.
Even if the center of the Earth pulls you toward it, inasmuch as it keeps you firmly lodged on the ground, your center of mass is pulling back at the Earth. But the more massive body barely feels the tug from you.
While with your much smaller mass you find yourself firmly rooted thanks to that same force. Yet, Newton’s laws assume that gravity is an innate force of an object that can act over a distance.
Albert Einstein, in his theory of special relativity, determined that the laws of physics are the same. Generally, for all non-accelerating observers, and he showed that the speed of light within a vacuum is the same.
No matter the speed at which an observer travels. Events that occur at the same time for one observer could occur at different times for another.
Albert Einstein Space-time Equation
In the first place, as Albert Einstein worked out the equations for his general theory of relativity, he realized that massive objects caused a distortion in space-time. For instance, imagine setting a large body in the center of a trampoline.
To enumerate, the body would press down into the fabric, causing it to dimple.
Here’s what you probably know: Albert Einstein is the mastermind behind E=mc² and the Theory of Relativity.
Here’s what you likely weren’t taught in school: The Nobel Prize winner was also a violin-playing womanizer who failed university entrance exams.
Albert Einstein more known Facts
That is, however, what you’ll learn in National Geographic’s Genius, a scripted series about Einstein executive produced by Brian Grazer and Ron Howard, and starring Geoffrey Rush and Johnny Flynn as the elder and younger Einstein.
Clearly, it shows everything from the thinking behind his greatest scientific advancements to his heartlessness in dealing with intimate relationships. Additional facts about him include;
- He was a philanderer.
- Left the country against his parents’ wishes.
- Failed exams and angered teachers.
- Einstein was barred from traveling.
- Above all, he was a talented musician.
The light around a massive object, such as a black hole, is bent, causing it to act as a lens. In particular, for the things that lie behind it. Further, astronomers routinely use this method to study stars and galaxies behind massive objects.
Einstein’s Cross, a quasar in the Pegasus constellation, is an excellent example of gravitational lensing. Whereas, the quasar is about 8 billion light-years from Earth. And sits behind a galaxy that is 400 million light-years away.
Remarkably, four images of the quasar appear around the galaxy. Because the intense gravity of the galaxy bends the light coming from the quasar. On one hand, the Gravitational Lensing can allow scientists to see some pretty cool things.
But until recently, what they spotted around the lens has remained fairly static. However, since the light traveling around the lens takes a different path. And, each traveling over a different amount of time, scientists were able to observe a supernova occur four different times.
Particularly, as it was magnified by a massive galaxy.
Mercury Orbit and Space-time Frame-dragging
The orbit of Mercury is shifting very gradually over time, due to the curvature of space-time around the massive sun. In a few billion years, it could even collide with Earth.
The spin of a heavy object, such as Earth, should twist and distort the space-time around it. In 2004, NASA launched the Gravity Probe B GP-B). The precisely calibrated satellite caused the axes of gyroscopes to drift very slightly over time, a result that coincided with Einstein’s theory.
“Imagine the Earth as if it were immersed in honey,” Gravity Probe-B principal investigator Francis Everitt, of Stanford University, said in a statement.” As the planet rotates, the honey around it would swirl, and it’s the same with space and time.
Think of the sound waves that emanate from a siren on an emergency vehicle. As the vehicle approaches you, compression of sound waves takes place. Whereas as it moves away, they are stretched out, or redshifted.
Known as the Doppler Effect, the same phenomena occurs with waves of light at all frequencies. In 1959, two physicists, Robert Pound, and Glen Rebka shot gamma-rays of radioactive iron up the side of a tower at Harvard University.
Violent events, such as the collision of two black holes, are thought to be able to create ripples in space-time known as gravitational waves. In 2016, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) announced that it found evidence of these tell-tale indicators.
In 2014, scientists announced that they had detected gravitational waves left over from the Big Bang using the Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization (BICEP2) telescope in Antarctica. It is thought that such waves are embedded in the cosmic microwave background.
First Gravitational Wave Discovery
LIGO spotted the first confirmed gravitational wave on September 14, 2015. Surprisingly, the first detection was so large that, according to LIGO spokesperson Gabriela Gonzalez.
Whereas, it took the team several months of analysis to convince themselves that it was a real signal and not a glitch. On the other hand, the second signal was spotted on December 26 of the same year, and a third candidate was mentioned along with it.
What does Modern Physics Mean?
Modern physics is a branch of physics in which matter and energy are not separate, but instead are alternate forms of one another.
The term modern physics refers to the study of facts and theories developed in this century that concern the interactions of matter, space, and time.
Moreover, one of the big dilemmas arising from 20th-century physics is that; so much of modern physics is based on two pillars. In particular, which came up in the early part of the last century.
Whereas one of them is the Theory of Relativity, and the other one being Quantum Mechanics. Relativity is a theory of gravity. There is no quantum theory of gravity.
1. Theory of Relativity
The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein. Including, the special relativity and general relativity. Whereas, special relativity applies to elementary particles and their interactions, describing all their physical phenomena except gravity.
2. Quantum Mechanics
Quantum mechanics (QM), is also (Quantum Physics, and or Quantum Theory). In particular, the wave mechanical model, and or matrix mechanics. Including, quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics. As an illustration, it describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Science and Physics Career
Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough. In general, to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field.
This led him to develop his special theory of relativity during his time at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern(1902–1909). Whereas, he published a paper on general relativity in 1916 with his theory of gravitation.
Surprisingly, Albert continued to deal with the problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory. And also, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules.
Whereby, he also investigated the thermal properties of light. Laying a foundation of the photon theory of light. Whereas, in 1917, he applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe.
Except for one year in Prague, Einstein lived in Switzerland between 1895 and 1914, during which time he renounced his German citizenship in 1896, then received his academic diploma from the Swiss federal polytechnic school (later the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, ETH) in Zürich in 1900.
In 1905, he was awarded a Ph.D. by the University of Zurich. The same year, he published four groundbreaking papers during his renowned annus mirabilis (miracle year) which brought him to the notice of the academic world at the age of 26.
Einstein taught theoretical physics at Zurich between 1912 and 1914 before he left for Berlin, where he was elected to the Prussian Academy of Sciences.
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