What is Terrorism?
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a religious or political aim.
Equally important, it is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime. Or in a war against non-combatants (mostly civilians and neutral military personnel).
To simply put, the terms “terrorist” and “terrorism” originated during the French Revolution of the late 18th century.
On the contrary, the acts gained mainstream popularity in the 1970s in news reports and books covering the conflicts in Northern Ireland, the Basque Country, and Palestine.
The increased use of suicide attacks from the 1980s onwards was typified by the September 11 attacks in New York City and Washington, D.C. in 2001.
Which are Examples of Terrorism in Kenya?
Whereby, in 1980, the Jewish-owned Norfolk hotel was attacked by the Palestine Liberation Organization (in short PLO). While in 1998, the US embassy in Nairobi was bombed, as well as the Israeli-owned Mombasa Paradise Hotel in 2002.
Other related cases of Terrorism in Kenya include;
- 1975 Nairobi bombing and JM Kariuki murder
- 1980 Norfolk Hotel bombing
- 1998 United States embassy bombings
- 2002 Kikambala Hotel bombing and Arkia Airlines missile attack, Mombasa
- 2012 Al-Shabaab attacks
- 2013 Westgate Mall shooting
- 2014 Mpeketoni attacks
- 2015 Garissa attack
- 2019 Nairobi Dusitd2 complex attack
What is the Role of the World on Terror?
No particular legal consequences flowed from the creation of inclusion on the list. On January 17, 2002, the FBI released a third major FBI wanted list, which has now become known as the FBI Seeking Information – War on Terrorism list.
Especially, to enlist the public’s help in reporting information that may prevent future terrorist attacks.
Which are Examples of Terrorism?
In general, governments across the globe are grappling with Terrorism Alerts. And on the fugitive group, the most wanted poster, the FBI did not list the persons in any particular stated order. Except perhaps for the consistent placing of bin Laden in the number one position of the top row.
However, the 22 can easily fit into distinct categories of over the two decades, based on the terrorist attacks in which they were, according to US authorities, involved.
And as can be seen, in this era of technology and globalization, security is increasingly becoming one of the most pertinent issues.
In other words, as criminals continue to evolve their tactics, the global security landscape is concurrently changing.
And we are now facing new and complex threats to both internal and external national security.
From the above mentions among others, they are all emerging security challenges that necessitate a radical and progressive reorientation of counter-strategies.
Let’s simplify the above-mentioned acts of Terrorism Allies with their main acts.
There are different definitions of terrorism
Terrorism is a charged term. And as a matter of fact, Governments and non-state groups use the term to abuse or denounce opposing groups.
Varied political organizations have been accused of using terrorism to achieve their objectives. These organizations include right-wing and left-wing political organizations, nationalist groups, religious groups, revolutionaries, and ruling governments.
Finally, legislation declaring terrorism a crime has been adopted in many states. However, there is no consensus as to whether or not terrorism should be regarded as a war crime.
However, the Global Terrorism Database, maintained by the University of Maryland, College Park, has recorded more than 61,000 incidents of non-state terrorism. While at the same time, resulting in at least 140,000 deaths between 2000 and 2014.
See examples of Terrorism Acts below;
The word “bioterrorism” refers to biological agents (microbes or toxins) used as weapons to further personal or political agendas. Acts of bioterrorism range from a single exposure directed at an individual by another individual to government-sponsored biological warfare resulting in mass casualties.
For one thing, Bioterrorism differs from other methods of terrorism in that the materials needed to make an effective biological agent are readily available, require little specialized knowledge, and are inexpensive to produce. Whereby, it could be a result of pathogenic microorganisms.
One of the greatest humanity concern linked to bioterrorism results from an outbreak of diseases such as;
Whereas, both can be lethal.
For instance, Anthrax ain’t communicable while smallpox is readily transmitted. Particularly from person to person.
In humans, the three forms of anthrax are inhalational, cutaneous, and intestinal. Initially, symptoms of inhalational anthrax may resemble the flu.
If untreated, symptoms will progress to breathing difficulties and eventual shock.
Narcoterrorism is a term coined by former President Fernando Belaúnde Terry of Peru in 1983 when describing terrorist-type attacks against his nation’s anti-narcotics police. In its original context, narcoterrorism the general attempt of narcotics trafficking.
Especially influencing the policies of a government or a society through violence and intimidation. Hindering the enforcement of anti-drug laws by the systematic threat or use of such violence.
For example, Pablo Escobar‘s violence in his dealings with the Colombian government is probably one of the best known. Exclusively, with one of the best selling movie series with best-documented examples of narcoterrorism.
The term has become a subject of controversy, largely due to its use in discussing violent opposition to the US government’s War on Drugs. In particular, to those that especially engage in drug trafficking activity. In reality, to fund their operations and gain recruits and expertise.
Such organizations include;
Learn more about Narcoterrorism.
Agroterrorism is defined as the malicious use of plant or animal pathogens to cause devastating disease in the agricultural sector.
Currently, this topic has received increased attention and discussion within academic, media, and government circles. In some developing countries, the potential exists for agroterrorism to cause widespread disruption through the loss of sustenance, income, and production.
Defense of agriculture may also be problematic because of the lack of stability and basic biosecurity infrastructure for the detection and prevention of diseases or invasive species. Furthermore, there are methodologies for risk-based allocation of resources.
- and Consequence (TVC) Analysis.
A qualitative application of the TVC framework analysis suggests that evidence exists to demonstrate general terrorist threats.
In addition to the vulnerability of agriculture and, depending on the country, potentially serious consequences arising from agroterrorism.
You can read and learn more about Security analysis for agroterrorism.
Cyberterrorism is the use of the Internet to conduct violent acts that result in or threaten, loss of life, or significant bodily harm.
For example, in order to achieve political or ideological gains through threat or intimidation. In that case, the Information Sharing Environment (ISE) terrorism database sharing.
Nonetheless, the use of cyber might become clear early on in that investigation. But a tie to terrorism may not reveal itself for days, weeks, or months, if ever. On the other hand, from that perspective, the term “cyber terrorism” isn’t always immediately clear.
The issue comes down to two things: people and infrastructure. In order to effectively prevent or respond to a terrorist attack, people (whether they be investigators, analysts, or subject matter experts) with the skills to make sense out of the information are needed.
The appropriate infrastructure must be in place beforehand to allow those involved to share information and talk with one another.
You can see more illustrations about Cyberterrorism.
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