Sudan War Conflict | Causes, Effects & Possible Resolutions

Just like the most recent war, — Russia Ukraine Crisis Conflict — the Sudan War Conflict is yet another similar, and or, related crisis that has taken the world by storm. In fact, there is an ongoing intensive negotiation by the United States with the support of their regional and international partners. To enable the security conditions that have allowed the citizens evacuation.

In particular, the departure of thousands of foreign and U.S. citizens — including through other ongoing operations. Realistically, the collision of cultures, religions, and ethnicities in Sudan — including those of sub-Saharan Africa and those of the Arab Islamic world — has led to nearly 50 years of civil war. Unfortunately, it seems like the trend is not ending any soon.

For your information, the very first Sudan War Conflict was sparked in 1983 when the military regime tried to impose Sharia law as part of its overall policy to “Islamicize” all of Sudan. In reality, according to a recent data survey, Sudan is one of the poorest countries in the world — its Annual Per-Capita Income in 2001 was $340. Thus, high rate of humanitarian needs.

Sudan is the largest country in Africa — more than one-quarter the size of the United States — and borders nine other countries, including Egypt, Chad, Kenya, and Ethiopia. Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, sits where the White Nile and the Blue Nile join together as the Nile and flow north to Egypt and into the Mediterranean. That said, let’s learn more about the war.

Understanding The Main Sudan War Conflict And Crisis Cause Roots

For the first half of the 20th century, present-day Sudan was a colony of the British Empire. Even as Sudan achieved independence from Britain in 1956, civil war was already brewing between the north and the south. Bear in mind, that back in 1972, the Addis Ababa Agreement enforced a peace agreement between the government and separatist southern rebels.

The country’s name derives from the Arabic ”Bilad al-Sudan,” which means “land of the blacks.” Since 1956, when Sudan first gained independence from the United Kingdom, there have been only 11 years of peace. For the first half of the 20th century, present-day Sudan was a colony of the British Empire. Of course, Sudan achieved independence from Britain in 1956, yes!

But even with that, the civil war was already brewing between the North and the South. Army coups in 1958 and 1969 plus civil war impeded attempts to build a parliamentary democracy failed. In 1972, the Addis Ababa Agreement enforced a peace agreement between the government and separatist southern rebels. Markedly, much of its land is plains and deserts.

On the contrary, it has large areas of arable land, significant gold deposits, and massive oil reserves. By the same token, agricultural production — such as cotton and peanuts cultivation — employs 80% of the workforce and contributes 39% of the gross domestic product. It’s also, worth mentioning, that Oil accounts for about 73% of Sudan’s total export revenues.

History And Government Could Be The Key Sudan War Conflict Player

After the coup, Omar al-Bashir became the chief of state, prime minister, and chief of the armed forces. He has been elected only once, in 1996. Al-Bashir continues to lead a government run by an alliance between the military junta and the National Congress Party, which pushes an Islamist agenda. Given time, Sudan’s government imposed a penal code back in 1991.

Whereby, it instituted amputations and stoning as punishments. The Sudanese Government harbored Osama bin Laden in the 1990s until the Clinton administration successfully pressured the government to expel him in 1996. In 1996, terrorist threats led President Clinton to withdraw the U.S. ambassador to Sudan. There is still no U.S. ambassador in Khartoum.

Although the embassy remains open. Notably, in 1997, the United States imposed economic sanctions, prohibiting trade with businesses in Sudan and prohibiting investment in Sudan by U.S. businesses. But, in early 2003, just as negotiations to end the civil war were progressing, a new rebellion spawned in the western Darfur province per ethnically African rebel groups.

Related Resource: Civil War in South Sudan | Global Conflict Tracker

Including the Sudanese Liberation Army (SLA), which attacked military installations. The SLA’s attack was rooted both in its belief that the government was neglecting Darfur. Perse, in its objections to the government’s preference for hiring ethnic Arabs as top government officials. The Sudanese government has enlisted Janjaweed — armed nomads from the North.

Effectively, they were to attack (following a pattern) villages that ostensibly harbored rebels. Usually, Government planes bomb villages in Darfur. Thereafter, within hours, Janjaweed would ride horses or camels to pillage homes — raping and murdering civilians. The Sudanese Government maintains that the Janjaweed are acting independently, without government support.

The Role That Land And Its Community Plays In The Sudan War Conflict

Sudan has an estimated population of 39 million, 52 percent of which are black, and 39 percent Arab. Arabic is the official language, and the government has attempted to impose Islamic Sharia law since 1983. Seventy percent of Sudan’s population is Muslim. Animists and Christians, who for the most part live in southern Sudan, account for about 30% of the population.

In Sudan, “Arab” is an ethnic and cultural term, typically referring to those who can trace their ancestry to the original inhabitants of the Arabian peninsula and whose mother tongue is Arabic. “Muslim” refers to anyone who follows Islam. In Sudan, many blacks are Muslims with the median age being 18 years (not 35), and life expectancy is 58 (not 70) years.

Moving on, Sudan has an adult literacy rate of about 60 percent. Darfur is a region in western Sudan, abutting Chad and the Central African Republic. It is about the size of Texas and has a population of 6 million; the majority are Muslim and have African features. The three largest African tribes in Darfur are the Fur, the Masalit, and the Zaghawa.

Generally speaking, most people of African descent in Darfur are farmers, and most people of Arab descent in Darfur are nomadic herders. There is fierce competition for land between herders and farmers. Including violent battles between Fur farmers and Arab herders from 1987 to 1989. To date, this competition could have fueled the present conflict in Darfur.

Why The Economic Status And Oil Mining Could Be A Driving Force

Beginning in 1983, the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) led insurrections in the south, a region dominated by Animists and Christians. In 1989, a compromise between the ruling government and southern opposition groups seemed imminent. But Omar al-Bashir, a politically and religiously extreme military leader, led a successful all-time government coup.

As per some Facts & Stats From The FRONTLINE, officials from the Sudanese Energy Ministry estimate that the county has 3 billion barrels of oil reserves. Foreign companies began oil exploration in the Red Sea in the 1960s. Ultimately, the most fruitful oil fields were found in southern Sudan by Chevron. In 1981, Chevron and the Sudanese government met for some talks.

During the meeting, they formed the White Nile Petroleum Corporation to oversee oil production in the south. But, Chevron suspended its southern Sudan operations in 1985 — because of fighting near the oil fields. Many Western Oil & Gas Companies have abandoned investments in Sudan, both because of the conflict and because of criticism by human rights groups.

Economic sanctions imposed by the United States in 1997 barred American companies from operating in Sudan. The nation’s major trade partners include China, Japan, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, India, the United Kingdom, Germany, Indonesia, and Australia. Army coups in 1958 and 1969 plus civil war impeded attempts to build a parliamentary democracy also failed.

The Overall Sudan War Conflict Effects That You Should Know About

As a matter of fact, since the 1983 start of the civil war, more than 4 million people have been displaced, and an estimated 2 million have died. Opposition groups as well as the government have been accused of atrocities in the conflict. Since 2003, violence in Darfur — called ethnic cleansing by some and genocide by others — has left an estimated 50,000 to 80,000 dead

And also, an estimated 1.2 million to 2 million people have so far been displaced. Survivors face severe shortages of food and clean water. An estimated 200,000 Sudanese have escaped to Chad, where they are living in refugee camps. Many are in desolate areas near the city of Abeche, where temperatures frequently exceed 100 degrees Fahrenheit.

In the same fashion, an estimated 2.3 million civilians in Darfur are in need of emergency aid. But, it is so unfortunate that the bottlenecks created by both the government and the rebel forces cut them off from food and medical supplies. In 2001, Sudan was declared to be free of polio, but the disease is making a comeback in the wake of war.

Health experts say the probability is high that more than 10,000 Sudanese have been infected with the virus. Just as we mentioned earlier, the very first civil war in Sudan was sparked back in 1983. More so, when the military regime tried to impose Sharia law as part of its overall policy to “Islamicize” all of Sudan. Today, we can see that there are other additions to the list.

Evacuation Efforts Of U.S. Citizens From Sudan By The State

A U.S. government-organized convoy carrying U.S. citizens, locally employed staff, and nationals from allied and partner countries arrived at Port Sudan on April 29. From there, they are assisting U.S. citizens and others who are eligible with onward travel to Jeddah, Saudi Arabia where additional U.S. personnel are positioned to assist with consular and emergency services.

This builds on the work the U.S. government has done this week to facilitate the departure of their diplomats by military-assisted departure. Plus hundreds of other U.S. citizens by land convoys, flights on partner aircraft, and sea. Hundreds of U.S. citizens and Lawful Permanent Residents have departed Sudan through these options facilitated by the U.S. government.

The U.S. government has taken extensive efforts to contact U.S. citizens in Sudan and enable the departure of those who wished to leave. Perse, they messaged every U.S. citizen in Sudan who communicated with them during the crisis. Whereby, they provided specific instructions about joining this convoy to those who were interested in departing via the land route.

We encourage U.S. citizens who want to leave Sudan but chose not to participate in this convoy to contact the Department of State using the crisis intake form on our website.” — Press Statement — Office Of The Spokesperson. What’s more, the Office of the Spokesperson, herewith, reiterates its warning to its U.S. citizens not to travel to Sudan.

Continued Diplomacy To Resolve The Sudan War Conflict And Crisis 

Assistant Secretary for African Affairs Molly Phee will travel from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on May 12 for meetings at the African Union. In conjunction with the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), and other African partners. In general, to consult and coordinate the next steps among regional and international partners.

Mostly, those who are united in seeking to help end the conflict in Sudan — given that they are also in line with the African Union’s April 20 communique. On May 11, the Sudanese Armed Forces and the Rapid Support Forces signed a Declaration of Commitment. Especially, to help protect the Civilians of Sudan recognizing the obligations of both sides.

Furthermore, this is something that is well stipulated under the International Humanitarian Law and International Human Rights Law to be precise. Whilst, affirming the need to facilitate humanitarian action to meet the emergency needs of civilians.

The facilitators and parties are now discussing modalities for implementing a short-term ceasefire. In line with the “step by step” approach agreed by the parties, the discussions in Jeddah are expected to address arrangements for subsequent talks.

Summary Thoughts:

As you can see, the Sudan War Conflict is deeply rooted more than we may all think. Given the potential possibilities of the main causes like land, people, economy, oil, and the like. Not forgetting, this war did not just start yesterday — it has been an ongoing conflict for years between the aforementioned parties. Then end of the war — only God knows when it’ll be resolved.

By all means, the United States together with other African Leaders remains committed to consultation and coordination with regional and international partners. More so, all those who share the goal of helping Sudan end this devastating conflict. As well as support the aspirations of the Sudanese People to establish civilian governance as soon as possible. Let’s be hopeful!

Related Resource: What Is Russia-Ukraine Crisis Conflict All About? Quick Facts!

With that in mind, what is your take on the ongoing crisis as a result of the Sudan War Conflict between the fighting parties? What do you think is the best possible resolution to help calm things down, stop the conflict, or even end the crisis? Kindly let us know your thoughts, opinions, recommendations, suggestions, or even contributions in our comments section.

On our end, to mitigate the crisis of the ongoing Sudan War Conflict, we continue to call on the Sudanese Armed Forces and the Rapid Support Forces to come to an agreement. In particular, so as to help end the fighting that is impacting the economy of the country as well as endangering civilians. We also request your DONATION to help us support some affected staff.

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