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PostgreSQL | A powerful Object-relational Database system

Basically, PostgreSQL has earned a strong reputation for its proven architecture, reliability, data integrity, robust feature set, extensibility, and the dedication of the open-source community. Especially, behind the software that consistently delivers performant and innovative solutions. It comes with many features aimed to help;

  1. developers build applications,
  2. administrators to protect data integrity and build fault-tolerant environments, and
  3. help you manage your data no matter how big or small the dataset.

In addition to being free and open-source software, PostgreSQL is highly extensible. For example, you can define your own data types, and build out custom functions. As well as, even write code from different programming languages without recompiling your database!


For your information, a PostgreSQL database developer is someone who is actually working on the project, not someone using it to develop an application or a website. For one thing, they don’t hire programmers. Meaning, they reach across the Internet, drawing the best database developers in the world to PostgreSQL.

With this in mind, read more about the people behind PostgreSQL and check out the group picture from the 2006 PostgreSQL Anniversary Summit.

What is PostgreSQL?

PostgreSQL is a powerful, open-source object-relational database system that uses and extends the SQL language. Combined with many features that safely store and scale the most complicated data workloads. Eventually, PostgreSQL runs on all major operating systems and has been ACID-compliant since 2001.

With powerful downloadable database software add-ons such as the popular PostGIS geospatial database extender. It is no surprise that PostgreSQL has become the open-source relational database of choice for many people and organizations.

The origins of PostgreSQL date back to 1986 as part of the POSTGRES project at the University of California at Berkeley. As of today, it has more than 30 years of active development on the core platform. Important to realize, PostgreSQL is a noncommercial, all-volunteer, free software project. And as such, there is no formal list of feature requirements for development.

Allowing developers to explore the topics of their choosing. Although they also ensure that all new features committed to PostgreSQL are thoroughly vetted. By a community of contributors and committers.

Why use PostgreSQL?

PostgreSQL tries to conform with the SQL standard where such conformance does not contradict traditional features or could lead to poor architectural decisions. Many of the features required by the SQL standard are supported. Though sometimes with slightly differing syntax or function.

Further moves towards conformance can be expected over time. As of the version 12 release in October 2019, it conforms to at least 160 of the 179 mandatory features for SQL. With 2016 Core conformance as well. As of this writing, no relational database meets full conformance with this standard.

PostgreSQL Server4

Identity PostgreSQL Server4 EF – Quickstart

The project aims to make at least one minor release every quarter, on a predefined schedule. If it becomes necessary due to an important bugfix or security issue, more releases will be made between these dates. So this list should be considered a minimum. At each of these dates, a new minor release will be made for each supported version.

Above all, read more about How to Identify Server4 Quickstart

Which are the Main Features?

Be that as it may, I hope we all are familiar with the term Database. And for interacting with the database what we need is called SQL( Structured query language). If you are a software developer or engineer you should know about this database. Also, if you really want to learn this database then you have to make your hands dirty on learning this.

Remarkably, the PostgreSQL is among the most popular databases out there. The main advantage of PostgreSQL is it is open-source. Also, it is robust in nature with high performance and multitasking. This database also includes lots of features that make it one of the good choices out of all the databases. PostgreSQL has become better with its every release.

Below is an inexhaustive list of various features found in PostgreSQL, with more being added in every major release:

  • Data Types

    • Primitives: Integer, Numeric, String, Boolean
    • Structured: Date/Time, Array, Range, UUID
    • Document: JSON/JSONB, XML, Key-value (Hstore)
    • Geometry: Point, Line, Circle, Polygon
    • Customizations: Composite, Custom Types
  • Data Integrity

    • Primary Keys
    • Foreign Keys
    • Exclusion Constraints
    • Explicit Locks, Advisory Locks
  • Concurrency, Performance

    • Indexing: B-tree, Multicolumn, Expressions, Partial
    • Advanced Indexing: GiST, SP-Gist, KNN Gist, GIN, BRIN, Covering indexes, Bloom filters
    • Sophisticated query planner/optimizer, index-only scans, multicolumn statistics
    • Transactions, Nested Transactions (via savepoints)
    • Multi-Version Concurrency Control (MVCC)
    • Parallelization of reading queries and building B-tree indexes
    • Table partitioning
    • All transaction isolation levels defined in the SQL standard, including Serializable
    • Just-in-time (JIT) compilation of expressions
  • Reliability, Disaster Recovery

    • Write-ahead Logging (WAL)
    • Replication: Asynchronous, Synchronous, Logical
    • Point-in-time-recovery (PITR), active standbys
    • Tablespaces
  • Security

    • Authentication: GSSAPI, SSPI, LDAP, SCRAM-SHA-256, Certificate, and more
    • Robust access-control system
    • Column and row-level security
    • Multi-factor authentication with certificates and an additional method
  • Extensibility

    • Stored functions and procedures
    • Procedural Languages: PL/PGSQL, Perl, Python (and many more)
    • SQL/JSON path expressions
    • Foreign data wrappers: connect to other databases or streams with a standard SQL interface
    • Customizable storage interface for tables
    • Many extensions that provide additional functionality, including PostGIS
  • Internationalization, Text Search

    • Support for international character sets, e.g. through ICU collations
    • Case-insensitive and accent-insensitive collations
    • Full-text search

There are many more features that you can discover in the PostgreSQL documentation. Additionally, PostgreSQL is highly extensible: many features, such as indexes, have defined APIs. So that you can build out with PostgreSQL to solve your challenges.

How do you Backup your PostgreSQL Database?

It is an actual database engine and SQL is a programming language with which we are working to communicate with a database. This is an object-relational database, which means that the relationship between the two tables is maintained. Any database has a table format that is integrated with rows and columns.

On the contrary, PostgreSQL supports many data types such as string, numeric, date and time like My SQL. Also, it supports data types for geometric shapes, images, network addresses, bit strings, text searches, and JSON entries, etc.  Read an understand more about its Database Architecture.

PostgreSQL Architecture

For instance, if you are using PostgreSQL in a production environment, it is important to take precautions to ensure that your users’ data is not lost. By frequently backing up your database, and/or automating backups with a cron task, you will be able to quickly restore your system in the event that your database is lost or corrupted.

Fortunately, PostgreSQL includes tools to make this task simple and easy to manage. You should have a working installation of PostgreSQL on your system before beginning backup. Go through the How to Install PostgreSQL on Ubuntu guide to install PostgreSQL and create a sample database. Learn More!

Summing Up,

The first place to go to for any questions on PostgreSQL is its world-renowned documentation which discusses how to use the database software in-depth. By the same token, they also have many mailing lists where you can connect and participate in the community. As well as many events and local user groups where you can connect with other users.

PostgreSQL has been proven to be highly scalable both in the sheer quantity of data it can manage and in the number of concurrent users it can accommodate. There are active PostgreSQL clusters in production environments that manage many terabytes of data. And also, specialized systems that manage petabytes.

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