URL Components or as known as a URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is a specific type of URI (Universal Resource Identifier). It normally locates an existing resource on the Internet. A URL is when a web client makes a request to a server for a resource.
As the Internet Society and IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) defines the concepts of the URI and the URL Components. (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2396.txt).
Briefly, a URI is any character string that identifies a resource. A URL is one of those URIs that identify a resource by its location, rather than by a name or other attribute of the resource.
A newer form of the resource identifier, the IRI (Internationalized Resource Identifier), permits the use of characters and formats that are suitable for national languages other than English.
What are the URL Components?
Throughout the next few sections, we’ll look at the three most important parts of a URL for regular users. They should answer the question: “What is a website URL?”
1. The protocol
Consider the following URL:
The easiest part of this address to overlook is the first part. You probably see http:// and https:// at the beginning of every URL and don’t give it a second thought. However, this element – the URL’s ‘protocol’ – is more important than you might think.
The protocol tells your browser how to communicate with a web site’s server, in order to send and retrieve information. Traditionally, most sites have used Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), and you’ll still see this version across the web.
However, there’s been a recent move towards widespread adoption of Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS). While this protocol does essentially the same thing as HTTP. It’s a much more secure option that encrypts the data sent back and forth between the browser and the server.
That’s why most browsers give it a green security padlock: Check out our guide to implementing HTTPS.
2. The domain name
Let’s go back to the full URL for a moment:
The next part is the most identifiable element of a web address – the ‘domain name’. A domain name is an identifier for a specific site, which will generally bring you straight to the home page. Of course, a domain name has two smaller parts.
There’s the name of the website in question, then the Top-Level Domain (TLD). The latter term refers to the .com, .org, .net designator (among others) at the end of the domain name.
When setting up a new site, it pays to spend some time carefully considering the domain name to use. It should be unique and attention-grabbing, but at the same time clear and easy to remember.
3. URL Components TLD
Your choice of TLD matters as well. For many sites, sticking with .com is the best option. It’s the TLD internet users are most familiar with and are usually expecting, which means it will be easiest for them to remember.
However, you can also benefit from choosing a TLD that’s a better fit for your niche or field. There are actually hundreds of TLD options (many of which are region- or industry-specific), so there’s plenty of choices if you want to venture beyond a simple .com.
4. The path
To visit our website’s front page, all you need is the protocol and the domain name: But each individual page or file on a website also has its own URL Components. Once again, here’s what it looks like:
The ‘path’ is the part after the TLD. This is because it directs the browser to a specific page on the website. In this case, it leads first to our blog, then to a particular post: How to Automatically Find and Fix Broken Links in WordPress.
The very last part is also sometimes called a URL ‘slug’. As a WordPress user, you actually have a lot of control over the paths for your URLs look like. WordPress enables you to make changes to your ‘permalinks’, or the individual links to each page and post.
URL Components Readers Board
For more information about IRIs, see Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs). A URL for HTTP (or HTTPS) has three or four components:
Here is an example of an HTTP URL
With a port number specified, the URL is:
Search engines place some weight on keywords in your URLs.
Be careful, however, as the search engines can interpret long URLs with numerous hyphens in them (e.g.,Buy-this-awesome-product-now.html) as a spam signal.
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